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Chapter -12 Modern India: The Advent Europeans

During the late 16th and the 17th Centuries, the European trading companies in India competed with each other ferociously. By the last quarter of the 18th Century the English had outdone all others and established themselves as the dominant power in India. The British administered India for a period of about two centuries and brought about revolutionary changes in the social, political and the economic life of the country.

The Advent of Europeans


Vasco Da Gama Meets Zamorin of Calicut

  • Vasco da Gama reaches Calicut on May 17, 1498. via "Cape of Good Hope"
  • At that time Calicut was ruled by a King named Zamorin.
  • The first Governer of portugese in India was Francisco Almeida - "Blue water Policy" 
  • In 1661, the King of Portugal gave Bombay to Charles II of England as dowry when he married the former’s sister.
  • 2nd Governor(1509) - Albuquerque (Real Founder)
  • Captured Goa from ruler of Bijapur & made it his capital & also captured Malacca & Ceylon (Sri Lanka)
  • Made fort of Calicut, died in 1515 


  • Formation of the Company in March, 1602, by a charter of Dutch parliament the Dutch East India Company.
  • Main centre was 'Pulicat' & later 'Nagapattinam'
  • Called East Asia as "Spice Island'
  • The Dutch replaced the Potuguese as the most dominant power in European trade with east, including India.
  • 'Amboyna Massacre' - Many Eng merchants killed by Dutch, Therefore Enemity b/w End & Dutch
  • The Dutch conceded to English after their defeat in the battle of Bedera in 1759.


  • The English East India  Company was set up in 1600.
  • In 1608 King James I sent Capt William Hawkins to the court of Jahangir to get permission for Surat factory but rejected
  • In 1611, the Company built its first factory in the south in Masulipatnam.
  • In 1613 Jahangir issued a Farman to eastablish factory at Surat
  • In 1615 Thomas Roe got permission for Agra & Ahemdabad
  • "Fort St.George"(1644) Madras - by Franchis Day & founded city 'Madras'
  • Charles II got Bombay as dowry from Potuegese
  • In 1699 Aurengzeb gave permission to eastablish factory at Calcutta & 'Fort William' constructed
  • Trade Centre - Tranquebar, Serampore (Bengal)

  • The French East India Company was formed by Colbert under state patronage in 1664.
  • They established their first factory at Surat in 1668 and at Masulipatnam in 1669.

to be continued .............

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