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Chaper 5 - The Mauryan Empire

FounderChandragupta Maurya
LastBrihadrath (killed by Pushyamitra Sungha)
CapitalPatliputra (modern ‘Patna’)

Literary source

“Arthashastra” (Sanskrit) – Vishnugupta (Chanakya or Kautilya or ‘Indian Machiavelli’)
• Arthashastra was discovered and published – by R. Shama Shastri (1904).
• Carries 15 books, 180 chapters, 3 parts.
• 1st part – King, council and department of government.
• 2nd part – Civil and criminal law.
• 3rd part – diplomacy and war.

“Mudrarakshasa” (Skt) – Vishakhadatta
“Indica”Megasthenes (Greek, Seleucus ambassador)
“Kathasaritsagar” Somdev
“Brihadkatha Manjari” Kshemendra
“Rajtarangini” Kalhan

(i) Chandragupta Mayurya 

• In 305 BC defeated Selucus Niketar (General of Alexander)
Megasthenese visited his court
• Made "Sudarshan Lake”, according to “Junagarh Rock Inscription”
• Later adopted ‘Jainism’  and went south india with ‘Bhadrabahu’ & died at ‘Sravanbelagola’ (Maysore, Karnataka)

(ii) Bindusar  (‘Amitraghat’)

• Conquered deccan upto Maysor
Taranath (Tibet Monk) said that bindu conquered 16 state & ‘land b/w two sea’
• Eldest son ‘Suman’ viceroy of ‘Taxila’ & ‘Ashok’ to ‘Ujjain’
• Followed ‘Ajivak Sampraday’

(iii) Ashoka The Great (272-232 BC)

MotherSubhadrandi or Janpad Kalyani, Father - BindusarSonMahendra, DaughterSanghmitraGuru gUpgupta (taught Buddhism)
• 1st 8 years ruled like a cruel king
• After Kalinga war embraced Buddhism from Guru g
• Appointed ‘Dharma Mahamatras’ to speed up process of Dharma propogation
• Conducted 3rd Buddhist Council at ‘Patliputra’
• His son and daughter went to Ceylon (Srilanka) to propagate Buddhism.

Ashoka Inscription

1st Deciphered by “James Princep”  (1837)
• Found in India, Nepal, Pakistan, Afganistan mostly in ‘Prakrit’ language & ‘Brahmi’ script
Northwest india, Pakistan  –  ‘Kharosthi Script’
  Afganistan –  ‘Amaic’ (Greek)
• Total 33 inscription out of which 14 Major Rock & 7 Minor Pillar Edict
• Took help from  “Ashtadyayi” (Skt Grammar) –  ‘Panini’
“Minor Rock Edict” (Maski) – Only edict carries his name & in rest referred as “Devnampriya” & “Priyadasi”
“Pillar Edict VII” – Explains efforts to propagate dharma
“Kandhar Edict” – Only Bilingual Edict
“Ruminidei Edict” – Explains birth of Buddha
“Rock Edict XIII” – Kalinga War (Longest)
“Kaushambi Pillar Edict” – Shifted to ‘Allahabad’ by ‘Jahangir’
“Sopara & Merrut Pillar Edict” – Shifted to ‘Delhi’ by ‘Firoz Shah Tuglaq’

After Ashok’s death in 232 BC
• Eastern part ruled by – Dasarath (Grandson)
• Western part ruled by – Kunal (Son)

Mauryan Economy, Art, Admin

Pana – Silver, Masikas – Copper, Kakini – 1/4th of Masika

• Chief guild was ‘Jeshthaka’
‘Krishta' – Cultivated Land
  ‘Akrishta’ – Waste Land
  ‘Vivita’ – Pasture land for animals

Five Provinces
  North – Taxilla
  West – Ujjain
  South – Swarnagiri
  East – Dosali
  Central – Patliputra (under king)

Amatyas – IAS officers
Samahart – Chief Tax Collector
Adhyaksha – Chief of Commerce & Industry
Dharmathikarin – CJI of Supreme Court
Gopa – 15 Village incharge
Raksihah – Police

"Lion Capital Of Ashok" 

i.  A sculpture of four Indian lions standing back to back, on an elaborate base that includes other animals. A graphic representation of it was adopted as the official Emblem of India in 1950.
ii. It was originally placed atop the A┼Ťoka pillar at the important Buddhist site of Sarnath by the Emperor Ashoka, in about 250 BC.

iii. Whenever the emblem is used by state governments or any other government body, the words Satyameva Jayate in Devanagari script has to be used right under the emblem as per the statute, State Emblem of India Act, 2005.
iv. On the Right side of Emblem there is a Horse and on left is Bull. Total animals are 4 i.e. Lion, Horse, Bull and Elephant


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