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- constitution is the set of fundamental principles according to which a state or central government functions .If these fundamental principles are written down on a document or legal paper, then it is said to embody a written constitution .
- The first constitution adopted by constituent assembly on 26 November, 1949 .It came in full operation with effect from 26 January, 1950.
- Constitution of India is the longest written constitution of any independent country in the world .
- The first constitu-tion adopted by India originally consisted of 22 parts, 395 articles and 8 schedules .At present it consist of 22 parts, 444 articles and 12 schedules
CONSTITUTENT ASSEMBLY AND THE MAKING OF CONSTITUTION• Constituent assembly was established to frame a constitution for the country .Members of the assembly were elected by the provincial assemblies.
• Each province and Indian states were allotted seats in proportion of its population, roughly in the ratio of one to million.
• Before independence, total number of seats in the assembly was 385, of whom 292 were from provinces (British India) and 93 from Indian states.
• After partition of India number of members of the assembly came to 299, of whom 284 were actually pre-sent on the 26 November, 1949and signed the final approved constitution of India.
• It took two years, eleven months and seventeen days for constituent assembly to finalise the constitution.
• Dr. B.R Ambedkar was the head of drafting committee which drafted the constitution.
IMPORTANT ARTICLES AND AMENDMENTS IN THE CONSTITUTION
Art.1-4:The Union and its territory.
Art.14-18: Right to equality.
Art.19-22: Right to freedom.
Art.23-24: Right against Exploitation.
Art.40: Organisation of village panchayats.
Art.44: Uniform civil Code for the citizens.
Art.45: Provision for early childhood care and education to children below the age of six years.
Art.48: Organisation of agriculture and animal husbandry.
Art.48A: Protection and improvement of environment and safeguarding of forests and wild life.
Art.49: Protection of monuments and places and objects of national importance.
Art.51: Promotion of international peace and security.
Art.54: Need of president (election of president).
Art.66: Need of Vice-President (election of vice-president).
Art.107: Provisions as to introduction and passing of bills.
Art.109: Special procedure in respect of Money bills.
Art.112: Annual financial statement (Budget).
Art.124: Establishment and Constitution of Supreme court
10TH Constitutional Amendment Act, 1961: Incorporation of Dadra and Nagar Haveli as Union territory.
12th Constitutional Amendment Act, 1962: Inclusion of territories of Goa, Daman and Diu into the Indian Union.
13th Constitutional Amendment Act, 1962: Insertion of Art.371 A to make special provisions for the administration of the state of Nagaland.
36th Constitutional Amendment Act, 1975: Made Sikkim a full-fledged state of Union of India.
42nd Constitutional Amendment Act, 1976 (Mini Constitution): The 42nd Amendment made fundamental changes in the Constitutional structure and it incorporated the words ‘SOCIALIST’, ‘SECULAR’ and ‘INTEGRITY’.
70th Constitutional Amendment Act, 1992: Altered Art. 54 and 368 to include members of legislative assemblies of Union Territories of Delhi and Pondicherry in the electoral college for election of the President.
73rd Constitutional Amendment Act, 1992: Panchayati Raj received Constitutional guarantee, status and legitimacy.
74th Constitutional Amendment Act, 1992: Constitutional sanctity to Municipalities.