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Chapter 11- The Mughal Empire And Rise of The Marathas

The beginning of the empire is conventionally dated to the founder Babur's victory over Ibrahim Lodi in the first Battle of Panipat (1526). It reached its peak extent under Aurangzeb, and declined rapidly after his death (in 1707) under a series of ineffective rulers. The empire's collapse followed heavy losses inflicted by the smaller army of the Maratha Empire in the Deccan Wars (1680–1707) which encouraged the Nawabs of BengalBhopalOudh,CarnaticRampur, and the Nizam of Hyderabad to declare their independence from the Mughals. Following the Third Anglo-Maratha war in 1818, the Mughal emperor became a pensioner of the Raj, and the empire, its power now limited to Delhi, lingered on until 1857, when it was effectively dissolved after the fall of Delhi during the Indian Rebellion that same year.

Mughal Family Line

Babur (AD 1526-1530)

Padshah or Zahir-ud-din Mhd

  • Born in 1483 AD at Farghana (central asia) descendent from Timur (father's side) as well as Chengiz khan (mother's side) & become king at 11.
  • Battle won - 
1st Battle of Panipat (1526) Vs Ibraham Lodi
Battle of Khanwa (1528) Vs Rana Sanga
Battle of Chanderi (1528) Vs Medini Rai
Battle of Ghaghra (1529) Vs Afgan & Bengal army (or Mhd Lodi)

  • "Tuzuk-i-Baburi" or "Baburnama" (Turkish) - Autobiography
  • " " " " " " " " " " "       " " '' " " " "    (English) - Madam Bebridge
  • " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " (Turkish to Persian) - Abdul Rahim Khane-i-Khanan
  • Died in 1530 buried at Agra & after 9 years reburied at Kabul (Tomb)

Humayun (AD 1530-1540, 1555-56)

  • Born in 1508 at Kabul 
  • Battle of Devrah - 1531
  • Battle of Chausa (1539) - Def by Sher Shah Suri
  • Battle of Kannauj (Bilgram) (1540) - Def by Sher Shah Suri - made humayun to leave Ind & went to Persia where 'Shah Tahmasp' welcomed him.
  • Married to Hamida Banu Begum & 'Akbar born at Amarkot (1542)
  • "Humayun Tomb" (delhi) - by Hamida Begum
  • "Humayunnama" - Gulbadan Begum (Sis)
  • Built 'Dinpanah' (delhi) - 2nd Capital
  • After exile of 15 years recaptured Dehi & Agra in 1555
  • Battle of Sarhind - 1955
  • Fell from stairs of library (Sher Mandal) in 1556
"He tumbled trough life & tumbled out of it" - Lane Poole

The Afghan Interlude

Sher Shah Suri (1540-1545)
Farid (orignal), Sher Khan 

  • Def Humayun in Battle of Chausa (1539) & conquered Delhi & Agra in Battle of Kannauj (1540) against Humayun.
  • 4 imp ministers of Sher Shah - 
                        i. Diwan-i-Wazarat - Income & expenditure
                        ii. Diwan-i-Ariz - Recrutment
                        iii. Diwan-i-Rasalat - Ambassadors & Envoys
                        iv. Diwan-i-Insha - Royal Proclamations
  • Issued 'Patta', 'Qabuliyat', 'Ryotwari System'
  • Known as 'Fore runner of Akbar'
  • Introduced 'Dagh System' or 'Branding of Horse'
  • Built 'Grand Trunk Road' from Calcutta to Peshawar
  • Also known as 'Father Of Modern Currency' - issued coin called 'Rupia' & his name in 'Devnagri'
  • Tomb at 'Sasaram' (Bihar), Built 'Purana Qila' (Delhi)
  • "Padmavat" - Malik Mhd Jayasi
  • Died by Gun powder explosion while conquering Kalinjar (1545)

The Mughal empire (contd.)

Akbar (1556-1605)

  • Jalaluddin Muhammad Akbar was the son of Humayun and Hamida Bano Begum. He ws born at Amarkot in 1542. Mahan Anaga (Foster Mother)
  • Coronated when he was just 14 years old.
  • Bairam Khan (Guardian) represented him in the Second battle of Panipat in 1556 against Hemu Vikramaditya. Hemu was defeated.
  • Between 1556-1560, Akbar  ruled under Bairam Khan’s regency.
  • Won Gujarat in 1572. It was in order to commemorate his victory of Gujarat that Akbar got the Buland darwaza constructed at Fatehpur sikri.
  • Fought Battle of Haldighati with mewar forces on 18 june, 1576.
  • His Land Revenue system was known as Todat Mal Bandobast or Zabti System.
  • Nine gems of Akbar court were BAT BAT MDH
                     B - Birbal (Admin)
                     A - Abul Fzal & Abul Faizi (Scholar)
                     T - Tansen (Musician)
                     B - Bhagwandas (Mansabdar)
                     A - Abdul Rahim Khan-e-Khana (Hindi Poet)
                     T - Todarmal (Fin Min)
                     M - Man Singh (Mansabdar)
                     D - Mullah do Pyaza 
                     H - Hakim Hukam
  • "Ain-i-Akbari" & "Akbar Nama" - Abul Fazal
  • "Ramayan" & "Mahabharat" Skt to Persian - Abul Faizi
  • Issued 'Infallibility Decree' or "Mazharnama" - which made him religious head & also King
  • Formed new religion "Din-i-Ilahi" - Birbal was only hindu to follow
  • Introduced "Mansabdari System" - recruitment of Army Personnel
  • "Ralph Fitch" - 1st englishman to visit court, Father Anthony Monserate also visited
  • Built "Ibabat Khana" (worship house), Fatehpur Sikri, Akbari Mahal, Jahangiri Mahal, Lahore Fort, Panch Mahal, Jodha bai Palace, Allahabad Fort
  • Official Lang - Persian
  • Last Campaign - Khandesh
  • Died 1605 (50 yr rule) at Sikhandara

Jahangir (1605-1627)
Salim or Sheikho Baba

  •   Captain Hawkins (1608-11) and Sir Thomas Roe (1615-1619) visited his court.
  • Paintings reached its zenith during his reign.
  • The title of Nur Jahan was conferred on Mehr-un-Nisa, wife of Jahangir
  • The fifth sikh guru, Guru Arjun dev was hanged on Jahangir’s order.
  • Only Mugal whose tomb outside India
  • Established "zanjir-i-Adal" (Chain of Justice) at Agra fort
  • "Tuzuk-i-Jahangiri" (Persian) - Autobiography
  • Built Akbar Tomb at Sikhandara, Itmad-ud-daula at Agra, Great Mosque at Lahore, Shalimar Garden at Srinagar.
  • Sons Khusrau & Khurram (Shahjahan) revolted 
  • Died in Srinagar & burried at Lahore

Shah Jahan (1628-1658)

  • His childhood name was Khurram.
  • Able general and administrator.
  • His reign is considered the ‘Golden age’ of the Mughal Empire.
  • Last years of his life were very painful.
  • Built Taj Mahal (In memory of  his wife Mumtaz Mahal) Chief Engg was 'Ustad Isa' and Jama Masjid, Red Fort. Therefore called "Prince of Builders" & "Engineer King"
  • Built 'Shahjanabad' as capital, Rang Mahal, Moti Mahal, Diwan-i-Kham, Diwan-i-Khas (Paradise on earth)
  • Had "Kohinoor Diamond" & "Peacock Throne" (took away by persian invader Nadir Shah in 1739)
  • 4 Sons- Dara Shikoh, Shah Shuja, Aurangzeb & Murada, 2 daughters - Jhan Ara, Roshan Ara
  • Died in 1666 in Agra Fort Jail, that time Aurangzeb was viceroy of Deccan who imprisoned his father. 
  • Bernier & Tavernier (France), Manucci (Italy) travelled.

Auranzeb Alamgir (1658-1707)
Zinda Fakir or Darvesh
  • He caused serious rifts in the Mughal-Rajput alliance by his policy of annexation of Marwar in 1639 after the death of Raja Jaswant Singh.
  • Reimposed Jizya, took away all hindu from state service, forbade inscription of 'Kalma' on coin, ended Nauroj, destroyed 'Vishwanath Temple', ended 'Jharokha Darshan', forbade music in court. 
  • In 1675, he ordered the arrest and execution of ninth sikh guru, Guru Teg Bahadur. 10th Guru Guru Govind Singh formed military called "Khalsa" which was later continued by 'Banda Bairagi'
  • Built Biwi ka Makbara.
  • Sent Shaista Khan to suppress Marathas(Shivaji) but Shivaji def him at Poona.
  • Again sent Jai Singh & peace maintained by "Treaty of Purandar" (1666) but by conspiracy Shivaji imprisoned but he escaped from Agra
  • Decline Cause - "Deccan Ulcer" spend too much time at deccan & made lot of enemies.
  • Died in 1707 at Ahmadnagar & buried at Daulatabad
  • Foreign invasion by Nadir Shah & Ahmed Shah Abdali & later by Britishers fully removed Mugal Empire.     

Later Mughals

Bahadur shah (1707-1712)
Muazzam (Real)
  • Assumed the title of Sha Alam I also known as Sha-i-Bekhabar.
  • Granted Sardeshmukhi to marathas & released Shahu

Jahndar Shah (1712-1713)
  • He became King with the help of Julfiqar Khan (Persian Noble). He was defeated by his nephew.
  • Gave raja jai singh title of 'Mirza Raja Sawai'

  • He ascended the throne with the help of  Abdullah Khan(wazir) & Hussain Khan(Mir Bakshi) also called King Makers

Mohammad Shah
  • He was pleasure loving king and was nick named , ‘Rangeela’.

Shah Alam II
  • Shah Alam joined  Mir Kasim of Bengal and Shiraj-ud-Daulah of awadha in the Battle of Buxor against the Britishers in 1764.
  • He defeated Maratha in 3rd Battle of Panipat.

Bahadur Shah
  • Last Mughal Emperor, he was the leader of Revolt of 1857.



  • Marathas rose to prominence under Shivaji.
  • Father-Shahji Bhonsale and Mother-Jijabai.
  • Ashtpradhan lived in his court.

  • Son of Shivaji
  • He was killed by Auragzeb’s army.
  • His son Sahu was in detention of  Aurangzeb.

  • Sambhaji was succeeded by his brother Rajaram.
  • After him, his widow Taraabhai put her infant Son, Shivaji II on throne,

  • After Aurangzeb’s death, he was released.
  • His release led to Maratha Civil War between Sahu and Tarabai.
  • During his reign, Peshwa’s domination started. First Peshwa was Balaji Vishwanath.
  • Last Peshwa was Baji Rao II. He signed subsidiary alliance in 1802 with Lord Wellesly.

Sikh Gurus And Their Important Works

                       Sikh Guru
                   Important Work
Guru Nanak
Founder of Sikhism, Born in Nankanasahib Talwandi (Pak)
Guru Angad
Invented Gurumukhi Script
Guru Amardas

Guru Ramdas
Akbar gave him land for establishment of Amritsar.
Guru Arjun Dev
Completed construction of Amritsar, Compiled Adi Granth.
Guru Hargovind
Constructed Akal Takht
Guru Gobind Singh
Converted Sikh into fighter caste

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