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Chapter 13- The 18th Century And The Rise of European Powers In India

In the beginning of 18th century among the Europeans two were emerged as super power, those were Britain & French. The English and the French were competing with each other to establish their supremacy in India. Both of them used the political turmoil prevalent in India as a result of the decline of the Mughal Empire in their favour and indulged in internal politics.

Poilicy of Britain

1. Elimination of France
2. Control over Bengal
  • The Anglo-French rivalry in India was manifest in the Carnatic region and in Bengal.
  • The downfall of the Mughal Empire led to the independence of Deccan under Nizam-ul-Mulk. The Carnatic region also formed part of the Nizam’s dominion.
  • In 1740, the Austrian War of Succession broke out in Europe. In that war England and France were in the opposite camps. They came into conflict in India also.

4 Anglo French or Carnatic War (1746-63)



Ist (1746-48) - Britain won
  • The French governor of Pondicherry, Dupleix opened attack on the English in 1746
  • Battle of Adyar (1746) - The Nawab of Arcot, Anwar-ud-din sent an army to aid the British and take the French out of Madras.
  • "Treaty of Aix-la-Chappelle" (1748) - to end the Austrian Succession War 
2nd (1749-54) - Britain won
  • Dupleix, Muzafar Jang & Chanda Sahib defeated Anwar Uddin & killed him in the battle of Ambur (1749)
  • British Commander Robert Clive (hero of Arcot) captured Arcot, meanwhile Dupleix was replaced by Godeheu as governor
  • "Treaty of Pondicherry" (1754) - war came to end
3rd (1758-63)

Seven years war in europe led to the 3rd Carnatic war
  • "Battle of Wandiwash (Pondicherry)" (1760) - complete white wash of French, British General Sir Eyre Coote defeated Count de Lally commander of the French troops
  • "Treaty of Paris" (1763) -  French agreed to confine its activities in Pondicherry, Karaikkal, Mahe and Yenam. 
Establishment of British Power in Bengal



Nawab of Bengal

i. Siraj-ud-Daulah
  • Renamed Calcutta as 'Alinagar'
  • Captured English factory at Kasimbazar & End took refuge at 'Fulta'
  • Robert Clive & Watson recaptured Calcutta
  • Robert Clive started Dual System
Black Hole Tragedy
200-300 Britishers were kept in a dark room having capacity of 50 & they all died.

Policy of Treachery - by Britishers
They bribed Mir Jafar (army gen of siraj), Amichand (rich merchant), Manik Chand (officer in charge), Jagat Seth (biggest banker), Khadim Khan(commander) to defeat Siraj

Result 
"Battle of Plassey" (near Calcutta) (23rd June,1757) - foundation of btitish rule in India
"Treaty of Alinagar" (1757) - Siraj gave all his rights to Britishers

ii. Mir Jafar
  • Britishers rewarded him with governor's post
  • Allowed 'dastaks' (free duty passes)
  • they promised Jafar to give money but they didn't
iii. Mir Quasim (Jafar's Son in law)
  • Revolted the misuse of dastaks, def by britishers & he fled to Awadh
Result
"Battle of Buxar" (1764) - Eng military superiority was established

Mir Quasim
Shah Alam-II (Mugal)                     Vs        British Gen Munro
Suja-ud-Daula (nawab of Awadh) 
  • First time Mugal emperor defeated
  • Robert Clive appointed as Governor of Bengal in 1765
"Treaty of Allahabad" (1765) - Mugal emperor granted Diwani (civil rights) & Nizamat (criminal rights) to Britishers
Dual government was ended by Warren Hasting & Calcutta became capital of Bengal in 1772


4 Anglo-Mysore Wars (1767-1799)



1st (1767-69)
  • Britishers Defeated by Nizam & Haider Ali (Maysore Sultan)
  • "Treaty of Madras" (1769)
2nd (1780-84) - Warren Hasting
  • Causes
    • (a) Britishers not following the treaty, 
    • (b) They captured Mahe ie. within Haider's territory
  • Haider formed grand alliance with Nizam of Hydrabad & Marathas in 1779
  • Eyre Coote Defeated Haider Ali at Proto Novo 
  • Haider died of Cancer & his death was kept secret till his son Tipu assumed power
  • "Treaty of Manglore" (1784) - b/w Tipu & British
3rd (1789-1792) - Cornwallis
  • Causes
    • (a) Tipu Sultan strengthened his position. This created worries to the British, the Nizam of Hyderabad and the Marathas. 
    • (b) Tipu made attempts to seek the help of France and Turkey. 
    • (c) In 1789, the British concluded a tripartite alliance with the Nizam and the Marathas against Tipu
  • Cornwallis with the help of Nizam & Marathas Defeated Tipu Sultan.
  • "Treaty of Srirangapattinam" (1792) - Banglore captured by Cornwallis


4th (1799) - Wellesley

  • Tipu's(Padsha) capital was 'Srirangapattinam' where he establised 'Freedom Tree' & become member of 'Jcobian Club'
  • Defeated by Wellesley & died in 1799


3 Anglo Maratha Wars (1775-1818)



1st (1775-82) - Warren Hasting
  • Raghunath Rao Def Hasting, "Treaty of Purander" (1776) signed
  • "Treaty of Salbai" (1782) signed between Warren Hastings and Mahadaji Scindia. 
  • "Treaty of Bassein" (1802) signed
2nd (1803-05)
  • British Def Marathas, "Treaty of Deogaon" (1803) signed between Bhonsle and Wellesley.
3rd Maratha War (1817-19)
  • Hasting Def Marathas, "Treaty of Nagpur" (1817)

2 Anglo Sikh Wars (1845-49)



1st (1845-46) - Harding
  • Defeated sikhs, "Treaty of Lahore" (1846)
2nd (1848-49) - Dalhousie
  • Defeated Sikhs, annexed Punjab
  • John Lowrence become st Chief Commander of Punjab





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