Skip to main content

Chapter 3- The Rise of Buddhism And Jainism


Lord Buddha:

  • Also known as Sakyamuni or Tathagata.
  • Born to Suddhodana (Sakya ruler) and Mahamaya in 563 BC on the Vaishakha Poorrnima day at Lumbani(near kapilavastu) in Nepal.
  • Lost mother 7 days after the birth. Brought up by stepmother Gautami.
  • Married at 16 to Yoshodhara. Enjoyed the married life for 13 years and blessed with a son named Rahula.
  • After seeing an old man , a sick man, a corpse and an ascetic, he decided to become a wanderer.
  • Left his place at 29 (with Channa, the charioteer and his favourite horse, Kanthaka) in search of truth (called ‘Mahabhinishkramana’ or The great Renunciation) and wandered for 6 years.
  • For 6 years he tortured himself until he was nothing but a walking skeleton. But after 6 years, he felt that his fasts and penance had been useless. So he abandoned these things.
  • Attained ‘Enlightenment’ at 35 at Gaya in Magadha (Bihar) under the Pipal tree.
  • Delivered the first sermon at sarnath where his five disciplines had settled. His first sermon is called ‘Dharmachakrapravartan. Or “turning of the Wheel of Law”.
  • Attained Mahaparinirvana at Kushinagar (identical to village Kasia in Deoria district of UP) in 483 BC at the age of 80.

Buddhist councils:

Trick To Learn Places- RVPK
Trick To Learn Kings- AKAK
483 BC
Mogaliputta Tissa

*In fourth council Buddhism separated into Mahayana and Hinayana sects.

Buddhist Literature:
  • In Pali language.
  • Buddhist scriptures in Pali are commonly referred to as Tripitakas, ie “Threefold Basket”.

#Vinaya Pitaka:
  • Rules of discipline in Buddhist monasteries.
#Sutta Pitaka:
  • Largest contains collection of Budddha’s sermons.
  • Jatakas are the fables about the different births of Buddha.
Mahatama Buddha stressed four noble truths:
  • There is sorrow.
  • Reason of sorrow is desire.
  • Sorrow can be ended by killing desires.
  • Desire can be controlled by following Eight Fold Path.
Stupas and Viharas:

  • Stupa: Relics of Buddha, Sanchi Stupa was built by Ashoka in Vidisha (MP).
  • Viharas: Residential Place of Bodh Bhikshu.
  • Nalanda vihar in Bihar constructed by Kumar Gupta-I.


  • Founded by Rishabha.
  • There were 24 Tirthankaras.
  • First was Rishabhadev (emblem: bull)
  • The 23rd Tirthankar was Parshwanath (emblem: snake)
  • The 24th Tirthankar was Mahavira (emblem: Lion)
Lord Mahavira:

  • The 24th and the last Tirthankar was Vardhman Mahavir (Emblem: Lion). He was born in Kundagram (Distt. Muzaffarpur, Bihar) in 540 BC.
  • Born to Siddhartha (Head of the Kshatriya Clan) and Trushla (sister of Lichhavi Prince chetak of Vaishali).
  • Bimbisara was realted to Lord Mahavira.
  • Married to Yashoda, had daughter  named  Priyadasena, whose husband Jamali became his first disciple.
  • At 30, after the death of his parents, he became an ascetic.
  • In the 13th year of his ascetism (on the 10th of Vishakha), outside the town of the Jrimbhikgrama, he attained supreme knowledge (kaivalya).
  • From now on he was called Jaina or Jitendriya and Mahavira, and his followers were named Jains. He got the title  of Arihant, ie, Worthy.
  • At the age of 72, he attained death at Pawanpuri, in 486 BC.
Jainism Sects:

Shwetambars (Those who wear white cloths) and Digamabars (Those who remain naked).

Jaina Literature:

  • Jaina Literature was first written in Prakrit  and later in Sanskrit.
  • "Kalpsutra"- Bhadrabahu.
Jaina Council:

Sr No
Jains divided into Shvetambar & Digambar
Devardhi Kshmashraman
12 Angas & 12 Upangas were compiled

Popular posts from this blog

Spotting Error Quiz IV - With Explanation For SSC Exam 2015

  Hello Readers, As you know that Spotting Error types question is an important part of competitive examinations and seldom any book provide you the detailed solution. So we have decided to provide you the previous year questions of  spotting error along with the Explanation . If you like it let us know, you can also ask for detailed solutions of questions that are bothering you. 1.     I found (a)/ the two first chapters of the book (b)/ particularly interesting. (c)/ No error (d) Answer    (b) Explanation : It should be   ‘the first two chapters’ . 2.     Bacon, the father of the English easy (a) / had a thirst (b) / of knowledge (c) / No error (d) Answer    (a) Explanation : The English means the citizen of England.   Article is not used before language

English Error Spotting - Previous Year Questions of SSC CGL

Competition Zenith brings you a post on Error Spotting to boost your English for competitive exams. We are providing you the specifically chosen questions from previous year papers of SSC CGL with the best possible explanation in simplest of the language. Below are some questions with explanation: Questions 1. Have trust on(a)/God and everything(b) /will be right.(c) /(d) No error 2. The cattles (a) /are grazing (b) /in the fields.(c) /(d) No error 3. He is one of (a)/ the best novelists (b) /that has ever lived. Do you agree? (c)/no error (d) 4. On a rainy day (a) /I enjoy to watch TV (b) / with a hot cup of tea.(c ) /no error(d) 5. No sooner did (a)/I reach (b)/ Patna railway station than the train departed(c)/no error (d) 6. There is no agreement (a) / between you and I (b) /so we are free to go our way(c) /no error (d) 7. A variety of books (a) / is available in the market (b) / to help the students qualify the competitive examinations.(c) /no error 8.

Easy way to understand Direct and Indirect speech rules

Introduction. There two ways to convey a message of a person, or the words spoken by a person to other person. 1.       Direct speech 2.       Indirect speech Suppose your friend whose name is Vipul tells you in College , “I will give you a pen”. You come to home and you want to tell your brother what your friend told you. There are two ways to tell him. Direct speech:   Vipul said, “I will give you a pen”. Indirect Speech:  Vipul said that he would give me a pen. In direct speech   the original words of person are narrated (no change is made) and are enclosed in quotation mark. While in indirect speech some changes are made in original words of the person because these words have been spoken in past so the tense will change accordingly and pronoun may also be changed accordingly. In indirect speech  the statement of the person is not enclosed in quotation marks, the word “ that ” may be used before the statement to show that it is indirect sp