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Chapter 3- The Rise of Buddhism And Jainism

Buddhishm




Lord Buddha:

  • Also known as Sakyamuni or Tathagata.
  • Born to Suddhodana (Sakya ruler) and Mahamaya in 563 BC on the Vaishakha Poorrnima day at Lumbani(near kapilavastu) in Nepal.
  • Lost mother 7 days after the birth. Brought up by stepmother Gautami.
  • Married at 16 to Yoshodhara. Enjoyed the married life for 13 years and blessed with a son named Rahula.
  • After seeing an old man , a sick man, a corpse and an ascetic, he decided to become a wanderer.
  • Left his place at 29 (with Channa, the charioteer and his favourite horse, Kanthaka) in search of truth (called ‘Mahabhinishkramana’ or The great Renunciation) and wandered for 6 years.
  • For 6 years he tortured himself until he was nothing but a walking skeleton. But after 6 years, he felt that his fasts and penance had been useless. So he abandoned these things.
  • Attained ‘Enlightenment’ at 35 at Gaya in Magadha (Bihar) under the Pipal tree.
  • Delivered the first sermon at sarnath where his five disciplines had settled. His first sermon is called ‘Dharmachakrapravartan. Or “turning of the Wheel of Law”.
  • Attained Mahaparinirvana at Kushinagar (identical to village Kasia in Deoria district of UP) in 483 BC at the age of 80.

Buddhist councils:



Trick To Learn Places- RVPK
Trick To Learn Kings- AKAK
Council
Time
Place
Chairman
King
First
483 BC
Rajgriha
Mahakashyap
Ajatsatru
Second
383BC
Vaishali
Sarvkami
Kalashoka
Third
251BC
Patliputra
Mogaliputta Tissa
Ashoka
Fourth
72AD
Kashmir
Vasumitra
Kanishka

*In fourth council Buddhism separated into Mahayana and Hinayana sects.

Buddhist Literature:
  • In Pali language.
  • Buddhist scriptures in Pali are commonly referred to as Tripitakas, ie “Threefold Basket”.


#Vinaya Pitaka:
  • Rules of discipline in Buddhist monasteries.
#Sutta Pitaka:
  • Largest contains collection of Budddha’s sermons.
  • Jatakas are the fables about the different births of Buddha.
Mahatama Buddha stressed four noble truths:
  • There is sorrow.
  • Reason of sorrow is desire.
  • Sorrow can be ended by killing desires.
  • Desire can be controlled by following Eight Fold Path.
Stupas and Viharas:




  • Stupa: Relics of Buddha, Sanchi Stupa was built by Ashoka in Vidisha (MP).
  • Viharas: Residential Place of Bodh Bhikshu.
  • Nalanda vihar in Bihar constructed by Kumar Gupta-I.

Jainism



  • Founded by Rishabha.
  • There were 24 Tirthankaras.
  • First was Rishabhadev (emblem: bull)
  • The 23rd Tirthankar was Parshwanath (emblem: snake)
  • The 24th Tirthankar was Mahavira (emblem: Lion)
Lord Mahavira:

  • The 24th and the last Tirthankar was Vardhman Mahavir (Emblem: Lion). He was born in Kundagram (Distt. Muzaffarpur, Bihar) in 540 BC.
  • Born to Siddhartha (Head of the Kshatriya Clan) and Trushla (sister of Lichhavi Prince chetak of Vaishali).
  • Bimbisara was realted to Lord Mahavira.
  • Married to Yashoda, had daughter  named  Priyadasena, whose husband Jamali became his first disciple.
  • At 30, after the death of his parents, he became an ascetic.
  • In the 13th year of his ascetism (on the 10th of Vishakha), outside the town of the Jrimbhikgrama, he attained supreme knowledge (kaivalya).
  • From now on he was called Jaina or Jitendriya and Mahavira, and his followers were named Jains. He got the title  of Arihant, ie, Worthy.
  • At the age of 72, he attained death at Pawanpuri, in 486 BC.
Jainism Sects:

Shwetambars (Those who wear white cloths) and Digamabars (Those who remain naked).

Jaina Literature:

  • Jaina Literature was first written in Prakrit  and later in Sanskrit.
  • "Kalpsutra"- Bhadrabahu.
Jaina Council:

Sr No
              Place
              Head
                 Result
1.
          Patliputra
Sthulabhadra
Jains divided into Shvetambar & Digambar
2.
           Vallabhi
Devardhi Kshmashraman
12 Angas & 12 Upangas were compiled




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