In the beginning of 6th century BC there was the struggle among the Janpads on the gangentic plane to persuade the wealth of the north i.e. IRON & COPPER that resulted into formation of MAHAJANPAD.
“Shodasha Mahajanpad”- 16 Mahajanpads (mentioned in Buddhist Literature “Anguttara Nikaya”).
4 most powerful were:-
1. Vatsa - Capital:- Kaushambi, Ruler:- Udayan
2. Avanti- Capital:- Ujjain, Ruler:- Pradyot
3. Kosala- Capital:- Ayodhya, Ruler:- Prasanjit
4. Magadh- 1st Capital- Siravasti
2nd Capital- Rajgir
3rd Capital- Patliputra
Rise Of Magadha Empire
- The political history of India from 6th century BC onwards is the history of struggle between four states - Magadha, Kosala, Vatsa and Avantis - for supremacy.
- Ultimatley the kingdom of Magadha emerged to be the most powerful one and succeeded in founding an empire.
Dynasties of Magadha Empire:
- Originally founded in 566 BC by the grand father of Bimbisar named Brihdratha but actually founded by Bimbisara (544-492BC).
- Capital- Rajgir.
ii. Ajatshatru (son)
- Ajatsatru (492-460 BC): son of Bimbisara, killed his father & seized the throne.
- Fuoght 16 year battele with lichhavis and Kosal.
- Constructed "Dhatu Chaityas" around capital Patligram. Also constructed Chaityas & Viharas.
- Organised 1st Buddhist Council at Rajgir.
iii. Udayin (last)
- Udayin (460-444 BC): He founded the new capital at Pataliputra, situated at the confluence of the Ganag & Son.
- Capital- Vaishali
- Founded by a minister shishunaga.
- Shishunaga was succeeded by Kalashok, in his reign 2nd Buddhism council held at Vaishali.
i. Mahapadmnanda ("Ekarat")
- Uprooted 'Khatriya' from north india, therefore tiltled "Ekarat" and Considered by many as the first non-Kshatriya dynasty.
- 'Hathigumpa Inscription'- By Kharvel of Kalinga described mahapadm & his conquest over Kalinga.
- He was the first to cross Vindhya to capture Deccan.
- Alexander (from Greece) attacked India in their reign in 326 BC. Dhana Nanda was there at that time.
- Later defeated by Mauryas.
Alexander Invasion (327-25 BC)
- Was from Macedonia (Greece), Father- Philip.
- Reached India through "Khyber Pass" (hindukush mountain) & made bridge on Indus.
- First met Taxila king Ambhi.
Battle Of "Hydaspes"(Jhelum) (326 BC)
(won) Alexander Vs Porus (ruled b/w area of Jhelum & Chenab)
- Impressed by the courage & heroism of Porus, Alexander reinstated him.
- Came upto river 'Beas' & returned back as his army revolted.
- Died in 'Babylon' (323 BC).
This Invasion resulted into Unification Of North under Mauryas
Catch Maurya Empire in the next article...............