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Chapter 6 Post Maurya Period And Gupta Period

Post- Mauryan Dynasties (200AD- 300 AD)

Shunga Dynasty

  • Founder Pushyamitra Sunga  Last Devbhuti murdered by Vasudev Kanav
  • Followers of Brahmanism
  • Performed Ashvamedh Sacrifice with the help of Patanjali
  • "Malvikagnimitram" - Kalidas
  • Protected North against Bacterian Greek
  • Pushyamitra fought against Kharvel of Kalinga
- 3rd ruler of Cheta Dynasty
- "Hathigumpha Inscription"
- Followed Jainism

Kanav Dynasty

  •  Founded by Vasudev Kanav def by Satvahans

Satvahana Dynasty

  •  Founded by Sheemukh  Last - Sri Yajna Satkarni (Eka Brahman)Cap - Paithan
  • "Nasik & Nanagadh Insciption" describes Satkarni by his mother Gautami Balsari
  • Land grant system to Brahmins was started by Satavahanas
  • Issued coins with image of Ship
  • Issued Max no of Lead Coins
  • Silver Coins - Karshapanas

Foreign Dynasties

The Indo-Greeks (Bacterians)

  • Bacterians got independent from Syrian empire, then led by Demetrius who occupied Afganistan & punjab. Appointed commander 'Appolodotus' & 'Menander' from Taxilla
  • Appolodotus extended upto Ujjain
  • Menander or 'Milinda having Cap - Sialcot (Pak) extended upto Mathura & tried upto Patliputra but failed as Vasumitra (Gr son of Pushya) opposed
  • Milind converted to Buddhism by his Guru G - Nagasena
  • "Milindapanho" - Q/A b/w Milinda & Nagasena
  • "Garuda Pillar" at Besnagar (Vidisha, MP) - Helidorus (Greek Amb) 
  • Bacterians were 1st to issue Coins as well as Gold Coins & coins carried portrait of Kings & their Names
  • "Gandhar School Of Art" developed, also influenced indian Science & Astronomy

The Shakas or Scythians
  • Founder - Maues                Last - Rudrasimha-III def by Chandragupta-II
  • Entered Ind through Bolan Pass
  • Vikramaditya defeated Shaka in & retook Ujjain & started celebrating Vikram Samvat (57 BC)
The Kushanas or Yuechis
  • Founder - Kujul Kadphises
  • Came from north central Asia near China. Their empire included a good part of central Asia, a portion of Iran, a portion of Afghanistan, Pakistan & almost whole of north India.
  • Kanishka was their most famous King  Cap - Peshawar or Puruspur
  • He patronized the following persons:
1.       Ashwaghosha (wrote ‘Buddhacharita’)
2.       Nagarjuna
3.       Vasumitra (Chairman of 4th Buddhist council, organised by Kanishka)
4.       Charak (a physician, wrote ‘charak samhita’)
  • He started an era in AD 78, which is now known as Saka era and is used by the Govt. Of India.
  • Fought against Chienese
  • Follower of Mahayan Buddhism

The Gupta Dynasty (Golden Age)

  • The first two kings of the dynasty were Srigupta and Ghatotkacha. Last - Vishnugupta
  • "Devichandraguptam" & "Mudrarakshnam" - Visakadatta
  • Called golden age because of maximum number of Gold coins

Chandragupta 1 (Maharajadhiraj)
  • 'Meherauli Iron Pillar Inscription' - describes him

Samudragupta (Kaviraj)
  • 'Allahabad Pillar Inscription' by Harisen (in Skt) & 'Ashoka Pillar' at Allahabad describe him
  • Issued Gold Coins represented himself playing Veena
  • Follower of vaishsnavism & Buddhist scholar 'Vasubandu'
  • Samudragupta is called the ‘Napolean of India’.

Chandragupta II (Vikramaditya or Sakari)
  • His court was adorned by celebrated nine gems (Navratnas) including Kalidasa, Amarsimha, Varahmihir, and Dhanvantri.
  • Chinese pilgrim Fahien visited India at this time.
  •  Gained access to ports of Arabian sea & major export import with Romans
  • 'Mehrauli Inscription' - describes him
Kumargupta I (Mahendraditya )
  • Founded Nalanda University (a renowned university of ancient India).

Skandgupta (Devraj)
  • Saved Ind from Hun invasion
  • Repaired dam of 'Sudarshan Lake'
  • After his death, the great days of the Guptas were over.
'Bhitari Stone Inscription' - Ghazipur (UP)
'Eran Inscription' - Sagar (MP) 1st inscription that tells about Sati Pratha

Literature of Gupta Period:

Abhigyan shankultalam, Ritusamhara, Meghadutam, Kumarasambhavan, Malavikagnimitram, Vikramaurvashi, Raghuvansham.
Vishnu Sharma
Panchtantra, Hitopdesh
Aryabhatta, Suryasiddhanta

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