Post- Mauryan Dynasties (200AD- 300 AD)
- Founder Pushyamitra Sunga Last Devbhuti murdered by Vasudev Kanav
- Followers of Brahmanism
- Performed Ashvamedh Sacrifice with the help of Patanjali
- "Malvikagnimitram" - Kalidas
- Protected North against Bacterian Greek
- Pushyamitra fought against Kharvel of Kalinga
- 3rd ruler of Cheta Dynasty
- "Hathigumpha Inscription"
- Followed Jainism
- Founded by Vasudev Kanav def by Satvahans
- Founded by Sheemukh Last - Sri Yajna Satkarni (Eka Brahman)Cap - Paithan
- "Nasik & Nanagadh Insciption" describes Satkarni by his mother Gautami Balsari
- Land grant system to Brahmins was started by Satavahanas
- Issued coins with image of Ship
- Issued Max no of Lead Coins
- Silver Coins - Karshapanas
The Indo-Greeks (Bacterians)
- Bacterians got independent from Syrian empire, then led by Demetrius who occupied Afganistan & punjab. Appointed commander 'Appolodotus' & 'Menander' from Taxilla
- Appolodotus extended upto Ujjain
- Menander or 'Milinda having Cap - Sialcot (Pak) extended upto Mathura & tried upto Patliputra but failed as Vasumitra (Gr son of Pushya) opposed
- Milind converted to Buddhism by his Guru G - Nagasena
- "Milindapanho" - Q/A b/w Milinda & Nagasena
- "Garuda Pillar" at Besnagar (Vidisha, MP) - Helidorus (Greek Amb)
- Bacterians were 1st to issue Coins as well as Gold Coins & coins carried portrait of Kings & their Names
- "Gandhar School Of Art" developed, also influenced indian Science & Astronomy
The Shakas or Scythians
- Founder - Maues Last - Rudrasimha-III def by Chandragupta-II
- Entered Ind through Bolan Pass
- Vikramaditya defeated Shaka in & retook Ujjain & started celebrating Vikram Samvat (57 BC)
The Kushanas or Yuechis
- Founder - Kujul Kadphises
- Came from north central Asia near China. Their empire included a good part of central Asia, a portion of Iran, a portion of Afghanistan, Pakistan & almost whole of north India.
- Kanishka was their most famous King Cap - Peshawar or Puruspur
- He patronized the following persons:
1. Ashwaghosha (wrote ‘Buddhacharita’)
3. Vasumitra (Chairman of 4th Buddhist council, organised by Kanishka)
4. Charak (a physician, wrote ‘charak samhita’)
- He started an era in AD 78, which is now known as Saka era and is used by the Govt. Of India.
- Fought against Chienese
- Follower of Mahayan Buddhism
The Gupta Dynasty (Golden Age)
- The first two kings of the dynasty were Srigupta and Ghatotkacha. Last - Vishnugupta
- "Devichandraguptam" & "Mudrarakshnam" - Visakadatta
- Called golden age because of maximum number of Gold coins
Chandragupta 1 (Maharajadhiraj)
- 'Meherauli Iron Pillar Inscription' - describes him
- 'Allahabad Pillar Inscription' by Harisen (in Skt) & 'Ashoka Pillar' at Allahabad describe him
- Issued Gold Coins represented himself playing Veena
- Follower of vaishsnavism & Buddhist scholar 'Vasubandu'
- Samudragupta is called the ‘Napolean of India’.
Chandragupta II (Vikramaditya or Sakari)
- His court was adorned by celebrated nine gems (Navratnas) including Kalidasa, Amarsimha, Varahmihir, and Dhanvantri.
- Chinese pilgrim Fahien visited India at this time.
- Gained access to ports of Arabian sea & major export import with Romans
- 'Mehrauli Inscription' - describes him
Kumargupta I (Mahendraditya )
- Founded Nalanda University (a renowned university of ancient India).
- Saved Ind from Hun invasion
- Repaired dam of 'Sudarshan Lake'
- After his death, the great days of the Guptas were over.
'Bhitari Stone Inscription' - Ghazipur (UP)
'Eran Inscription' - Sagar (MP) 1st inscription that tells about Sati Pratha
Literature of Gupta Period:
Abhigyan shankultalam, Ritusamhara, Meghadutam, Kumarasambhavan, Malavikagnimitram, Vikramaurvashi, Raghuvansham.