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Chapter 10 - The Delhi Sultanate

The Slave or Mamaluk Dynasty

Qutubuddin Aibak (AD 1206- 1210)
‘Lakh Baksh’
  • Lahore and later Delhi were his capitals.
  • Laid foundation of Qutab Minar after the name of famous Sufi saint, Khwaja Qutbuddin Bakhtiyar Kaki.
  • He also built the first mosque in India, Quwatul-Islam (Delhi) and Adhai Din ka Jhopra at ajmer. .
  • Died of a horse fall at Lahore, while playing Chaugan (similar to Polo).
  • Patronized 'Hassan Nizami' & 'Fakhre Mudir'
Iltutmish (AD 1210-1236)
  • He was son-in-law and slave of Aibak.
  • He formed Turkan-i-Chahalgani or Chalisa (a group of 40 powerful Turkish nobles to suppress other noble people).
  • Introduced 'Iqtadari System' & head of Iqta called 'Muqti'
  • Completed the construction of Qutub Minar
  • Refused to give shelter to Jalal-ud-din shah of Khwarizm & saved delhi from 'Changiez Khan'
  • Divided his empire into IQTAS, an assignment of land in lieu of salary, which he distribured to his officers.
  • He introduced the silver tanka and the copper jital , 2 basic coins of the Sultanate. 
  • "Tabaqat-i-Nasiri" - Minhaj-us-Siraj (court poet)
  • Died due to illness in his palace
Raziya Sultan (AD 1236-1240)
  • She was daughter of Iltutmish & the first and the last Muslim woman ruler of medieval India.
  • Defeated & murdered Firoz Shah
  • Married to Altunia of bhatinda
  • At Kaithal (Haryana) they were murdered
Balban (AD 1266-1286)
Niyabat-i-Khudai or Zil-i-Ilahi
  • He was declared Sultan as the representative of god on earth. He impressed upon the people that king was the deputy of God (niyabat-i-khudai) and the shadow of God (zil-i-ilahi).
  • Introduced-
Sijda - Lie down on foot to show respect
Paibos - Kissing feet of monarch
Nauroj - New year of persian
Diwan-i-Arz military department
  • Removed Chahalgni & introduced Spy system
  • Court Poet - Amir Khusaro (Parrot of India) & Amir Hasan
  • Fan of Baba Farid
  • Died in sorrow when his son Mahmud killed in war against Mangols
  • Kayumar (son) & Kaiquabad (gr son) were incompetent & were killed by balban's commander jalal-ud-din Khilji
The Khalji Dynasty

Jalaluddin Firoz Khilji (AD 1290-1316)
 'Mujahid-fi-Sabillah' (fighter in path of god)
  • He was the first ruler to put forward the view that since a large majority of people in India are Hindus, the state in India could not be total Islam state.
  • Very peaceful & kind ruler
  • Appointed Ala-ud-din as governor of Kara
  • His nature was not liked by all so Ala-ud-din killed him
Alauddin Khalji (AD 1296-1316)  
2nd Alexander (Sikandar-i-Sani)
  • First Turkish Sultan of Delhi who separated religion from politics, He proclaimed, “kingship knows no kinship”.
  • His real name was 'Ali Gurshap'
  • First sultan to invade South India i.e. his general Malik Kafur invaded south
  • Sarnath Temple again demolished by him 
  • Hindus were Forced to pay tax (Jizya)
  • First Sultan to have permanent army – paid soldiers in cash, imported horse, detailed description of each soldier was kept.
  • Both Amir Khusro and Mir Hasan Dehlvi enjoyed his patronage.
  • Introduced 4 ordinance to prevent rebellion 
1st - Free grants of land 
2nd - Recognition of Spy System
3rd - Prohibition on wine
4th - No Social Gathering
  • Diwan-i-Riyasat - Minister of Market Dept
  • Shahana-i-Mandi - Market Dept
  • Famous Works - 'Alai Darwaza', 'Fort of Siri', 'Palace of Thousand Pillars'(Hazar Situn)
  • Son Mubarak Khan (Pagal King) murdered Malik Kafur & known as 'Qutubuddin Mubarak Shah'
  • Mubarak appointed Khusaro Khan as 'Malik Naib' (PM)
  • Khusaro Khan killed Mubarak & titled as 'Nasiruddin Khusarav Shah' (Last) was killed by Ghiyasuddin Tuglaq
He was regarded as 'Father of Quawwali', introduced Gazal style song, originator of Khayal & Tarana style of music & was also known as "Parrot of India"

- "Khazain-ul-Fatah" or "Tarikh-i-Alai" (expedition of Ala-ud-din)
- "Tuglaqnama" (history of Ghiyasuddin)
- "Khamshah"
- "Miftahul Futuh"
- "Nuh Sipihr" (Nine Skies)  

The Tughlaq dynasty

Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq (AD 1320-1325)
Ghazi Malik (orignal)
  • Too keen interest in the construction of  canals, formulated a famine policy, postal system, police, Judiciary.
  • Built the fortified city of Tughlaqbad and made it his capital.
  • Died when pavilion fell upon him which had set up by Mhd Bin Tuglaq  
Muhammad Bin Tughlaq (AD 1325- 1351)
Juna Khan (orignal), Jahanpanah
Experi-Mental King
  •  Regarded as the most controversial figure in Indian History, because some his ambitious projects:
    • 1. Transfer of capital to Devagiri (Daulatabad) in 1327.
    • 2.  Intorduction of token currency 
    • 3. Raised the Tax of Doab region (area b/w two rivers)
  • Introduced Max no of coins & known as "Prince of Moneyers"
  • "Diwan-i-Kohi" - Agriculture Dept
  • During his last days due to rebellion the whole of South India became independent states- The empire of Vijayanagar, The Bahmani Kingdom and Sultanate of Madura, were formed.
  • Famous Traveller, Ibn-Batuta visited during his period. He wrote the book, ‘Rohela’.
Firoz shah Tuglaq(AD 1351-1388)
  • He founded cities tripple F H J i.e. Fatehabad, Ferozpur, Firozabad, Hissar, Jaunpur
  • He made iqtadary system hereditary. 
  • Declared Delhi as 'Sunni Islamic State'
  • Cancelled 'Taquavi' (agricultural loans) & started collecting
Kharaj - 1/10th produce of land
Khams - 1/5th of Warbooty
Jizya - Poll tax
Zakat - On Muslims for religious works
  • Done lot of works on irrigation canal, dams, wells, bridges
  • Employed Employment exchange, Marriage Bureau
"Diwan-i-Khairat" - Charity Bureau
"Dar-ul-Shafa" - Charitable Hospital
"Diwan-i-Bandagan" - Slave Dept
  • Destroyed 'Jagannath Temple' at puri
  • "Futahat-i-Firozshahi" - Autobiography
  • "Fatwah-i-Jahandari" & "Tarikh-i-Firozshahi" - Ziauddin Barani (court poet)
  • 1st to decode script of Ashoka Pillar
  • He imposed Jajiyah on Brahmins for the first time.
# In AD 1398  Timur the lame, who was a Great Mongol (samarqand)leader of Central Asia ordered general massacre in Delhi and robbed people mercilessly. At that time, Nasiruddin Mehmud (a Tughlaq king) was the ruler.

The Sayyid Dynasty
  • Khizr Khan (Riyat-i-Ala) founded the dynasty.
  • Khizr Khan’s 3 successors- Mubarak Shah (1421-33), Muhammad Shah (1434-44) & Alauddin alam Shah (1443-51) were incapable leaders.

The Lodi Dynasty

Bahlol Lodi (AD 1451-1489)
  • The first afghan dynasty of India.
  • Revived Sultanate to quite an extent.
  • Annexed Jaunpur
Sikander Lodi (AD 1489-1517)
Nizam Khan (orignal), Sikandar Shah
  • In 1504, he founded the city of Agra and made it his capital.
  • Introduced "Gaz-i-Sikandari" - Measurement unit
  • Demolished Jwalamukhi temple at nagarkot
  • Enjoyed 'Shahnai' music
Ibrahim Lodi (AD 1517-1526)

  • "Battle of Khatoli"(1518) - defeated Rana Sanga of Mewar
  • Intolerant & cruel ruler
  • Treated Dilwar khan lodi son of Daulat khan very cruely, therefore to take revenge daulat khan lodi invited Babur of Kabul to invade india
  • "1st Battle of Panipat" (1526) - end of delhi sultanate - Babur defeated Ibrahim Lodi

Ministers of Sultan
"Wazir" - PM & FM
"Diwan-i-Rilasat" - Foreign Affairs Min
"Sadar-us-Suddar" - Islamic Law Min
"Diwan-i-Insha" - Correspondence Min
"Diwan-i-Ariz" - Defence or War Min
"Qazi-ul-Quzar" - Min of Justice


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