The Slave or Mamaluk Dynasty
Qutubuddin Aibak (AD 1206- 1210)
- Lahore and later Delhi were his capitals.
- Laid foundation of Qutab Minar after the name of famous Sufi saint, Khwaja Qutbuddin Bakhtiyar Kaki.
- He also built the first mosque in India, Quwatul-Islam (Delhi) and Adhai Din ka Jhopra at ajmer. .
- Died of a horse fall at Lahore, while playing Chaugan (similar to Polo).
- Patronized 'Hassan Nizami' & 'Fakhre Mudir'
Iltutmish (AD 1210-1236)
- He was son-in-law and slave of Aibak.
- He formed Turkan-i-Chahalgani or Chalisa (a group of 40 powerful Turkish nobles to suppress other noble people).
- Introduced 'Iqtadari System' & head of Iqta called 'Muqti'
- Completed the construction of Qutub Minar
- Refused to give shelter to Jalal-ud-din shah of Khwarizm & saved delhi from 'Changiez Khan'
- Divided his empire into IQTAS, an assignment of land in lieu of salary, which he distribured to his officers.
- He introduced the silver tanka and the copper jital , 2 basic coins of the Sultanate.
- "Tabaqat-i-Nasiri" - Minhaj-us-Siraj (court poet)
- Died due to illness in his palace
Raziya Sultan (AD 1236-1240)
- She was daughter of Iltutmish & the first and the last Muslim woman ruler of medieval India.
- Defeated & murdered Firoz Shah
- Married to Altunia of bhatinda
- At Kaithal (Haryana) they were murdered
Balban (AD 1266-1286)
Niyabat-i-Khudai or Zil-i-Ilahi
- He was declared Sultan as the representative of god on earth. He impressed upon the people that king was the deputy of God (niyabat-i-khudai) and the shadow of God (zil-i-ilahi).
Sijda - Lie down on foot to show respect
Paibos - Kissing feet of monarch
Nauroj - New year of persian
Diwan-i-Arz - military department
- Removed Chahalgni & introduced Spy system
- Court Poet - Amir Khusaro (Parrot of India) & Amir Hasan
- Fan of Baba Farid
- Died in sorrow when his son Mahmud killed in war against Mangols
- Kayumar (son) & Kaiquabad (gr son) were incompetent & were killed by balban's commander jalal-ud-din Khilji
The Khalji Dynasty
Jalaluddin Firoz Khilji (AD 1290-1316)
'Mujahid-fi-Sabillah' (fighter in path of god)
- He was the first ruler to put forward the view that since a large majority of people in India are Hindus, the state in India could not be total Islam state.
- Very peaceful & kind ruler
- Appointed Ala-ud-din as governor of Kara
- His nature was not liked by all so Ala-ud-din killed him
Alauddin Khalji (AD 1296-1316)
2nd Alexander (Sikandar-i-Sani)
- First Turkish Sultan of Delhi who separated religion from politics, He proclaimed, “kingship knows no kinship”.
- His real name was 'Ali Gurshap'
- First sultan to invade South India i.e. his general Malik Kafur invaded south
- Sarnath Temple again demolished by him
- Hindus were Forced to pay tax (Jizya)
- First Sultan to have permanent army – paid soldiers in cash, imported horse, detailed description of each soldier was kept.
- Both Amir Khusro and Mir Hasan Dehlvi enjoyed his patronage.
- Introduced 4 ordinance to prevent rebellion
1st - Free grants of land
2nd - Recognition of Spy System
3rd - Prohibition on wine
4th - No Social Gathering
- Diwan-i-Riyasat - Minister of Market Dept
- Shahana-i-Mandi - Market Dept
- Famous Works - 'Alai Darwaza', 'Fort of Siri', 'Palace of Thousand Pillars'(Hazar Situn)
- Son Mubarak Khan (Pagal King) murdered Malik Kafur & known as 'Qutubuddin Mubarak Shah'
- Mubarak appointed Khusaro Khan as 'Malik Naib' (PM)
- Khusaro Khan killed Mubarak & titled as 'Nasiruddin Khusarav Shah' (Last) was killed by Ghiyasuddin Tuglaq
AMIR KHUSRAU Works
He was regarded as 'Father of Quawwali', introduced Gazal style song, originator of Khayal & Tarana style of music & was also known as "Parrot of India"
- "Khazain-ul-Fatah" or "Tarikh-i-Alai" (expedition of Ala-ud-din)
- "Tuglaqnama" (history of Ghiyasuddin)
- "Miftahul Futuh"
- "Nuh Sipihr" (Nine Skies)
The Tughlaq dynasty
Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq (AD 1320-1325)
Ghazi Malik (orignal)
- Too keen interest in the construction of canals, formulated a famine policy, postal system, police, Judiciary.
- Built the fortified city of Tughlaqbad and made it his capital.
- Died when pavilion fell upon him which had set up by Mhd Bin Tuglaq
Muhammad Bin Tughlaq (AD 1325- 1351)
Juna Khan (orignal), Jahanpanah
- Regarded as the most controversial figure in Indian History, because some his ambitious projects:
- 1. Transfer of capital to Devagiri (Daulatabad) in 1327.
- 2. Intorduction of token currency
- 3. Raised the Tax of Doab region (area b/w two rivers)
- Introduced Max no of coins & known as "Prince of Moneyers"
- "Diwan-i-Kohi" - Agriculture Dept
- During his last days due to rebellion the whole of South India became independent states- The empire of Vijayanagar, The Bahmani Kingdom and Sultanate of Madura, were formed.
- Famous Traveller, Ibn-Batuta visited during his period. He wrote the book, ‘Rohela’.
Firoz shah Tuglaq(AD 1351-1388)
- He founded cities tripple F H J i.e. Fatehabad, Ferozpur, Firozabad, Hissar, Jaunpur
- He made iqtadary system hereditary.
- Declared Delhi as 'Sunni Islamic State'
- Cancelled 'Taquavi' (agricultural loans) & started collecting
Kharaj - 1/10th produce of land
Khams - 1/5th of Warbooty
Jizya - Poll tax
Zakat - On Muslims for religious works
- Done lot of works on irrigation canal, dams, wells, bridges
- Employed Employment exchange, Marriage Bureau
"Diwan-i-Khairat" - Charity Bureau
"Dar-ul-Shafa" - Charitable Hospital
"Diwan-i-Bandagan" - Slave Dept
- Destroyed 'Jagannath Temple' at puri
- "Futahat-i-Firozshahi" - Autobiography
- "Fatwah-i-Jahandari" & "Tarikh-i-Firozshahi" - Ziauddin Barani (court poet)
- 1st to decode script of Ashoka Pillar
- He imposed Jajiyah on Brahmins for the first time.
# In AD 1398 Timur the lame, who was a Great Mongol (samarqand)leader of Central Asia ordered general massacre in Delhi and robbed people mercilessly. At that time, Nasiruddin Mehmud (a Tughlaq king) was the ruler.
The Sayyid Dynasty
- Khizr Khan (Riyat-i-Ala) founded the dynasty.
- Khizr Khan’s 3 successors- Mubarak Shah (1421-33), Muhammad Shah (1434-44) & Alauddin alam Shah (1443-51) were incapable leaders.
The Lodi Dynasty
Bahlol Lodi (AD 1451-1489)
- The first afghan dynasty of India.
- Revived Sultanate to quite an extent.
- Annexed Jaunpur
Sikander Lodi (AD 1489-1517)
Nizam Khan (orignal), Sikandar Shah
- In 1504, he founded the city of Agra and made it his capital.
- Introduced "Gaz-i-Sikandari" - Measurement unit
- Demolished Jwalamukhi temple at nagarkot
- Enjoyed 'Shahnai' music
Ibrahim Lodi (AD 1517-1526)
- "Battle of Khatoli"(1518) - defeated Rana Sanga of Mewar
- Intolerant & cruel ruler
- Treated Dilwar khan lodi son of Daulat khan very cruely, therefore to take revenge daulat khan lodi invited Babur of Kabul to invade india
- "1st Battle of Panipat" (1526) - end of delhi sultanate - Babur defeated Ibrahim Lodi
Ministers of Sultan
"Wazir" - PM & FM
"Diwan-i-Rilasat" - Foreign Affairs Min
"Sadar-us-Suddar" - Islamic Law Min
"Diwan-i-Insha" - Correspondence Min
"Diwan-i-Ariz" - Defence or War Min
"Qazi-ul-Quzar" - Min of Justice