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Chapter 9 - Medieval India And Islamic Invasion

For a period that has come to be so strongly associated with the Islamic influence and rule in India, Medieval Indian history went for almost three whole centuries under the so-called indigenous rulers, that included the Chalukyas, the Pallavas, the Pandyas, the Rashtrakutas, the Muslims rulers and finally the Mughal Empire. The most important dynasty to emerge in the middle of the 9th century was that of the Cholas.
The Medieval India consists -
1. Kingdom of Deccan
2. Kingdom of South
3. Kingdom of North
4. Mugal Rule

Kingdom Of North

The North India was earlier ruled by around 36 Rajput clans but the major were -  

The Pratihara (Gurjara)

Cap - Kanauj (UP)
Founder - Nagabhatta-I
Last - Rajyapala
  • The greatest ruler of the Pratihara dynasty was Mihir Bhoja(Adivarah). He recovered Kanauj (Kanyakubja) by 836, and it remained the capital of the Pratiharas for almost a century. He built the city Bhojpal (Bhopal). Raja Bhoja and other valiant Gujara kings faced and defeated many attacks of the Arabs from west. 
  • In 1018, Kannauj then ruled by a Rajyapala Pratihar was sacked by Mahmud of Ghazni. The empire broke into independent Rajput states.


Cap - Muddagiri or Munger (Bihar)
Founder - Gopala
Last - Govindapala
  • "Vikramshila Univ" - Founder by 'Dharmapala' (Buddhist)
  • Renovated "Nalanda Univ"
  • Sen dynasty succeeded Palas

The Senas
  • After the decline of the Palas, the Sena dynasty established its rule in Bengal. 
  • The founder of the dynasty was Samantasena. The greatest ruler of the dynasty was Vijaysena
  • The last ruler of this dynasty was Lakshamanasena under whose reign the Muslims invaded Bengal, and the empire fell.
  • Founded Delhi in 736 AD
  • Mahipal Tomar was most powerful
Chauhans Of Delhi & Ajmer
  • Captured Ujjain from Parmaras of Malwa & Delhi from Tomars
  • Most powerful ruler was Prithviraj Chauhan
1st Battle Of Tarain (Haryana) - (won) Prithvi Vs Mhd Ghori - 1191
2nd Battle Of Tarain - Prithvi Vs Mhd Ghori (won) - 1192

Cap - Mahoba (UP)
Founder - Yashovarman
Last - Paramal
  • "Kandariya Mahadeva Temple" - at Khujaraho
  • They were Indian Royal Rajputs found in Central India

Guhilas or Sisodiyas 
Cap - Chittor (Raj)
Founder - Bapa Rawal
  • Ala-Ud-Din Khilji Def Rana Ratan Singh
  • Singh's wife Padmini performed 'Jauhar' (mass suicide of women)
  • Rana Sanga & Maharana Pratap were rulers of 'Mewar'
  • Rana Kumbha Def Mhd Khilji & constructed  "Vijay Stambha" (Chittor)
Cap - Dhara (MP)
  • Most powerful ruler was 'Raja Bhoj'
  • Constructed lake near Bhopal & Skt college at Dhara
  • Ala-Ud-Din khilji def him
Rajput Literature
  • "Raajtarangini" - Kalhan
  • "Gita Govindam" - Jayadev (court poet of Laxman sen)
  • "Kathasaritsagar" - Somdeva
  • "Prithviraj Raso" - Chand Bardai (Poet of Prithviraj Chauhan)
  • "Siddhanta Shiromani" (Astrology) - Bhaskara Charya
  • "Karpuramanjari" & "Bal Ramayan" - Rajshekhar (Court poet of Mahendrapal & Mahipal)
Art & Architecture 
  • 'Mural' & 'Miniature' paintings were famous
  • Khajuraho, Lingraj (Bhuvneshwar), Sun Temple, Dilwara Temple
Tripartite Struggle (to overcome Kannauj)

The struggle included
1. Pratihar from Central India
2. Pala from Bengal
3. Rashtrakutas from Deccan

This struggle made them weak & later Turks overthrown them.
Islamic Invasion
The initial entry of Islam into South Asia came in the first century after the death of the Prophet Muhammad. Muslim conquests on the Indian subcontinent mainly took place from the 12th to the 16th centuries, though earlier Muslim conquests made limited inroads into modern Afghanistan and Pakistan as early as the time of the Rajput Kingdom in the 8th century. With the establishment of the Delhi Sultanate, Islam spread across large parts of the subcontinent.

First Muslim Invasion (712 AD)
  • Mohammad Bin Qasim invaded India in 712 AD.
  • Sent by Al-Hajaj (governor of Iraq) to conquer Sindh. 
  • Battle of Rewar - (won) Qasim Vs Dahir (ruler of Sindh)
  • Qasim captured Multan & called it "City Of Gold".
  • Was sent to Mesopotamia Jail by Caliph Sulaiman
First Turk Invasion (998-1030 AD)
  • Mhd Ghaznavi led 17 expeditions between 1000 and 1027 says "The History Of India" - by Sir Henry Elliot.
  • His Scholars - 'Firdausi' & 'Alberuni'.
  • "Kitab-Ul- Hind" or "Tahqiq-i-Hind" - Al-Beruni
  • "Shahnama" - Firdausi
  • He plundered Thaneshwar, Mathura, Kannauj and Somanth.
  • The plunder of Somnath temple (dedicated to Shiva) in 1025, situated on the sea coast of Kathiwar, was famous.
Second Turk Invasion (1175-1206 AD
  •  Mohammad Ghori entered  India through 'Gomal Pass' and laid the foundation of Muslim dominion in India.
  • His real name was 'Muizuddin Mhd Bin Sam'.
  • Commander - Qutb-Ud-Din Aibak & Mhd-Bin-Baktiyar Khilji
  • Baktiyar Khilji destroyed Vikramshila & Nalanda University.
  • Ist battle of Tarain (1191) - (won) Prithviraj Vs Ghori
  • IInd battle of Tarain (1192) - Prithviraj Vs Ghori (won)
  • Battle of Chandawar (1194) - Jaichandra of Kannauj Vs Ghori (won)
  • Captured Delhi and Ajmer and thus laid foundation of Muslim Rule in India.
  • Died in 1206, gave Qutab-ud-Din Aibak the charge of Sultanate.


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