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Chapter 3 - Physical Geography of India

  • 43% - Plain
  • 30% - Mountain
  • 27% - Plateau
  • 23% - Forest
  • India is 2.4% of world = 3.28 Million Km^2 Area
  • North to South - 3214 Km
  • East to West - 2933 Km
  • Latitude8°4' N and 37°6' N
  • Longitude68°7' E and 97°25' E
  • Standard Meridian82.5° E (5 Hr 30 Min Ahead)
  • Territorial Limit - 12 Nautical Miles (13.8 mi or 22.2 Km) from coastline
  • Tropic of Cancer (23°30' N) - Through 8 States :- Gujrat, Rajasthan, M.P., Chattisgarh, Jharkhand, W.B., Tripura, Mizoram.
  • Maximum Length of Border with - Bangladesh (4096 Km)


  • Arc shape 2500 Km b/w river Indus & Brahmaputra
  • Its upliftment in 3 phases (Cretaceous Period)
  1. Inner Himalayas - Oligocene Period
  2. Middle Himalayas - Miocene Period
  3. Outer Himalayas - Post Pleistocene Period
Outer Himalayas (Shiwalik)

  • Youngest, Height is 600 to 1500 mt 
  • Arunachal Pradesh - Abor, Dafla, Miri, Mishmi, Patkai Bum
  • Nepal - Churia, Muria, Dhang, Dhundwa
  • J.K. - Jammu Hills
  • Lower Part of Shiwaliks called "Terai"
  • Valleys b/w Himachal & Shiwalik - Kathamandu, Dehradun, Haridwar
Middle or Lesser Himalayas
  • Height - 3700 to 4500 mt, Width - 60-80 Km
  • Vedic name - Himachal
  • Hill Stations - Dalhousie, Manali, Simla
  • Ranges
a. Pir Panjal (J.K.) - Longest of middle himalayas
b. Dhauladhar (H.P.) 
c. Mussoorie (U.K.)
d. Nagtibba (Nepal)
e. Mahabharat (Nepal)
  • 'Kashmir Valley' lies b/w Pir Panjal & Zaskar - Famous for "Karewa" (thick deposit of glacier clay) formation for Zafran (Saffron) cultivation
  • Passes b/w - 
a. Pir Panjal (JK) - Jammu & Srinagar
b. Banihal (JK)  - NH 1 & Jawahar Tunnel
c. Rohtang (HP) - Kullu to Keylang (HP)

Inner or Great Himalayas

  • Avg Height - 6100 mt
  • Vedic name - Himadri & Bahirgiri
  • Peaks
a. Everest or Sagarmatha (Nepal) or Chomolungma (China) - 8848 mt
b. K-2 or Godwin Austin or Qagir - 8611 mt India's Highest peak & world's 2nd highest at POK
c. Kunchenjanga - 8598 mt India's 2nd highest & world's 3rd highest at Sikkim
d. Nanga Parbat - 8108 mt at JK
e. Kamet & Nandadevi - UK
  • Passes
Jammu & Kashmir
a. Photu la (JK, Zaskar) - Leh & Kargil
b. Khardungla (JK, Ladakh) - Leh & Shyok & Nubra Valley upto Siachin
c. Karakoram (JK) - Ind & China
d. Burzil (JK) - Kashmir Valley to Central Asia
e. Zojila (JK) - Srinagar to Leh   

Himachal Pradesh
a. Bara Lachala (HP) - Mandi to Leh
b. Shipki-la (HP) - Shimla to garetok (Tibet)

a. Mana (UK) - to Mansarovar through Kailash
b. Niti (UK) -    " " " " " " " " " " " " " " "  " " "
c. Lipulekh (UK) -   " " " " " " " " " " " "  " " "

a. Nathu-la - to Chumbi Valley
b. Jelep-la - Kaligpong (WB) to Lahasa (Tibet)

Arunachal Pradesh
Bomdi-la - to Tibet through Tawang
Yang-Yap - Entry of Brahmputra
Pangsad - Dibrugarh to Mayanmar

  • Transhimalayas
a. Siachin
b. Baltaro
c. Biafo
d. Zaskar
e. Karakoram - K2, Hidden Peak (8068 mt)
f. Ladakh - Rakasposhi, Gurla Mandhata, Kailash

Meghalaya - Garo, Khasi, Jaintia hills
Assam - Mikir hills
Mizoram - Mizo or Lushai hills

- Bhutiya Tribes - UK, Bugyal - High altitude alpine Grassland in UK
- Gaddi Tribe - HP
- Lepcha People - Darjiling & Sikkim Himalayas 
- Anthracite coal found in Kargil region


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