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Chapter 4 - Indian Peninsular Plateau

Indian Peninsular Plateau is triangle in shape having average height of 600-900 mt extends from Alluvial plain of Bihar & UP towards south.

The peninsular plateau is a tableland. It is composed of the oldest rocks because it was formed from the drifted part of the Gondwana land. Broad and shallow valleys and rounded hills are the characteristic features of this plateau
The plateau can be broadly divided into two regions

  1. Central Highland
  2. Deccan Plateau
Central Highland
The Central Highlands lies to the north of the Narmada river. It covers the major portion of the Malwa plateau - lies in western MP, famous for opium,Soyabean & cotton, Chambal river flows through it. 
The rivers in this region flow from southwest to northeast; which indicates the slope of this region. It is wider in the west and narrower in the east. Bundelkhand and Baghelkhand mark the eastward extension of this plateau. The plateau further extends eastwards into the 
Chhotanagpur plateau - consisting Ranchi, Hazaribagh & Kodarma. 

Deccan Plateau
The Deccan Plateau lies to the south of the Naramada river. It is triangular in shape. The Satpura range makes its northern part. The Mahadev, Kaimur Hills and Maikal range make its eastern part. The slope of the Deccan Plateau is from west to east. It extends into the north east which encompasses Meghalaya, Karbi-Anglong Plateau and North Cachar Hills. Garo, Khasi and Jaintia hills are the prominent ranges; starting from west to east.

1. Aravali Range 
Relict Mountain (due erosion) or Museum of Minerals

  • Oldest i.e. pre-combrian period, covers distance of 700 Km, extends from Delhi to Gujrat 
  • compared with Appalachian Mountain of the USA
  • Rashtrapati Bhawan is situated on this hill.
  • Highest Peak - Gurushikhar (Mt Abu, Raj)
2. Gir Mountains
  • Situated in Kathiawar region of Gujrat 
  • Famous for Asiatic Lions
3. Western Ghats
Sahyadris or Great Escarpment of India

  • Extends from mouth of river Tapti to Cape of Kanyakumari for 1600 Km
  • Average height - 1200m
  • Height increases from North to South
  • It is a UNESCO World Heritage Site and is one of the eight "hottest hotspots" of biological diversity in the world 
a. Nilgiri Hills
Blue Mountains
  • They are Block Mountains
  • Lies in Tamil Nadu, Highest Peak is Doda Beta (2637 mt)
  • Udhagmandalam (Ooty) is situated here
  • Nilgiri  is meeting place of Western & Eastern Ghat
b. Annamalai Hills
  • Anaimudi Peak (2695 mt) - Highest peak of South India & Western Ghat
c. Cardamom Hills
  • Southern most hill range of India
  • Shenkotta Gap is located here
4. Eastern Ghats
Purva Ghat or Mahendra Parvat
  • Located on East coast of Orrisa, Andhra & Tamil Nadu
  • Average Height - 600 mt
  • Highest Peak - Jindhagada (AP)
  • Height decreases from North to South
a. Stanley Hill - TN
b. Javadi Hills - TN
c. Palkonda Hills - AP (Tirupati Temple)
d. Nallamala - AP

5. Vindhyan Range
  • Lies in MP & UP i.e. b/w Son & Narmada
  • Sepataes North India from South India
  • They are Block Mountains
  • Avg Height is 700-1200 mt
6. Satpura Range
  • Lies in MP & Maharashtra & Chhattisgarh.
  • Maikal Hills is present in this range famous for Bauxite
  • Kanha National Park (MP), Melghat Tiger Reserve (Maha) is situated in this range
  • Thery are Block Mountains
  • Have Rift Valley or Fault Valley of Narmada & Tapti on either side
  • Situated saouth & parallel to Vindhyan Range
  • Highest Peak - Dhoopgarh (1350 mt) near Panchmani (MP)
a. Ajanta & Satmala (Maha)
b. Mahadeo Hills (MP)
c. Harishchanda Hills (Maha)
d. Balaghat Hills (Maha, AP, Karnataka)
e. Rajmahal Hills (Jharkhan & WB) - Highest Peak Parasnath (Jharkhand)

Passes of South India

a. Thal Ghat or Kasara Ghat (Maha) - Mumbai to Nashik
b. Bhor Ghat (Maha) - Mumbai to Pune
c. Pal Ghat (Kerala) - Palkhad to Coimbatore
d. Shenkota (Kerala) - Kollam to Madurai (Connects Kerala & TN)
  • Konkan Railway - Roha (near Mumbai) to Mangalore
Great Indian Desert (Thar)

  • Is a large, arid region in the northwestern part of the Indian subcontinent that forms a natural boundary between India and Pakistan. 
  • Located to South West of Aravalli
  • In India, it covers about 320,000 km2 (120,000 sq mi), of which 60% is in Rajasthan and extends into Gujarat, Punjab, and Haryana.
  • Luni is the only river which flows through it
  • Sand Dunes or Barchans are found here  

Coastal Plains

1. West Coast

  • Narrower
  • More Ports
  • Coast from Gujrat to Goa is known as "Konkan"
  • From Goa to Kanayakumari known as "Malabar"
  • "Cannara" Coast is in Karnataka
  • At Malabar 'Kayals' (black water) is present which is for fishing & Nehru Trophy Boat Race is also conducted.
2. East Coast
  • Broader
  • Less Ports
  • Southern Part is called "Coromandal Coast"
  • Godawari, Mahanadi, Krishna, Cauvery forms delta here 
  • Famous for rice cultivation
  • Chilka & Pulicat are the Lagoon Lakes present here 
Islands of India
  • 572 Island/Islet are present in Bay of Bengal
  • 247 Islands are habited Islands

1. Andaman & Nicobar
  • Capital - Port Blair
  • Total 203 Islands
  • It is continuation of 'Arakanyoma Hills' (Mayanmar)
  • 10 Degree Channel separates - Andaman & Nicobar
  • Duncan Pass Separates - Little Andaman & South Andaman
  • Two main Islets are Ritchie's Archipelago & Labrynth
  • Middle Andaman in Area wise is Largest Island
  • Highest Peak - Saddle Peak (737 m) in North Andaman
  • Sothernmost Point - Indira Point (Pugmallin Point) at Great Nicobar
  • Active Volcano - Barren Island at Nicobar
2. Lakshadweep
  • Capital - Kavarati
  • Total Islands are 36 out of which 25 are habited
  • Are Horse Shoe shaped & made up of Attols (Corals)
  • 8 Degree Channel - Lakshadweep & Maldives
  • 9 Degree Channel - Minicoy & Lakshadweep
  • 11 Degree Channel - Amini Island & Cannanore Island
  • Minicoy is Largest & Sothernmost Island of Lakshadweep
  • Pumban Island is B/W India & Srilanka
  • New Moor Island is in Bay of Bengal 


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