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CHAPTER 12 - Fundamental Duties (PART-IVA)

  • 42nd Constitutional Amendment Act in 1976 - Fundamental Duties comes under Part IVA to the Constitution & Article 51A.
  • The Fundamental Duties in the Indian Constitution are inspired by the Constitution of erstwhile USSR.
  • Later in 1976, the fundamental duties of citizens were added in the Constitution. In 2002, one more Fundamental Duty was added.
Swaran Singh Committee
  • In 1976, the Congress Party set up the Sardar Swaran Singh Committee to make recommendations about fundamental duties.
  • Centre accepted these recommendations and enacted the 42nd Constitutional Amendment Act in 1976.
List of Fundamental Duties

1.
to abide by the Constitution and respect its ideals and institutions, the National Flag and the National Anthem
2.
to cherish and follow the noble ideals that inspired the national struggle for freedom
3.
to uphold and protect the sovereignty, unity and integrity of India
4.
to defend the country and render national service when called upon to do so
5.
to promote harmony and the spirit of common brotherhood amongst all the people of India transcending religious, linguistic and regional or sectional diversities and to renounce practices derogatory to the dignity of women
6.
to value and preserve the rich heritage of the country’s composite culture
7.
to protect and improve the natural environment including forests, lakes, rivers and wildlife and to have compassion for living creatures
8.
to develop scientific temper, humanism and the spirit of inquiry and reform
9.
to safeguard public property and to abjure violence
10.
to strive towards excellence in all spheres of individual and collective activity so that the nation constantly rises to higher levels of endeavour and achievement
11.
to provide opportunities for education to his child or ward between the age of six and fourteen years. This duty was added by the 86th Constitutional Amendment Act, 2002

Features of F.D.
i. The Fundamental Duties are confined to citizens only and do not extend to foreigners.
ii. Like the Directive Principles, the fundamental duties are also non-justiciable.
iii. They refer to such values which have been a part of the Indian tradition, mythology, religions and practices.
iv. Some of them are moral duties while others are civic duties.

Verma Committee Observations
The Verma Committee on Fundamental Duties of the Citizens (1999) identified the existence of legal provisions for the implementation of some of the Fundamental Duties.


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